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Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 6652 Accepted: 4265

###### Description

When a number is expressed in decimal, the kth digit represents a multiple of 10k. (Digits are numbered from right to left, where the least significant digit is number 0.) For example,

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 16232 Accepted: 5401

###### Description

The digital root of a positive integer is found by summing the digits of the integer. If the resulting value is a single digit then that digit is the digital root. If the resulting value contains two or more digits, those digits are summed and the process is repeated. This is continued as long as necessary to obtain a single digit.

For example, consider the positive integer 24. Adding the 2 and the 4 yields a value of 6. Since 6 is a single digit, 6 is the digital root of 24. Now consider the positive integer 39. Adding the 3 and the 9 yields 12. Since 12 is not a single digit, the process must be repeated. Adding the 1 and the 2 yeilds 3, a single digit and also the digital root of 39.

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 12864 Accepted: 5066

###### Description

One of the first users of BIT’s new supercomputer was Chip Diller. He extended his exploration of powers of 3 to go from 0 to 333 and he explored taking various sums of those numbers.
“This supercomputer is great,” remarked Chip. “I only wish Timothy were here to see these results.” (Chip moved to a new apartment, once one became available on the third floor of the Lemon Sky apartments on Third Street.)

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 11798 Accepted: 7690

###### Description

A certain prison contains a long hall of n cells, each right next to each other. Each cell has a prisoner in it, and each cell is locked.
One night, the jailer gets bored and decides to play a game. For round 1 of the game, he takes a drink of whiskey,and then runs down the hall unlocking each cell. For round 2, he takes a drink of whiskey, and then runs down the
hall locking every other cell (cells 2, 4, 6, ?). For round 3, he takes a drink of whiskey, and then runs down the hall. He visits every third cell (cells 3, 6, 9, ?). If the cell is locked, he unlocks it; if it is unlocked, he locks it. He
repeats this for n rounds, takes a final drink, and passes out.
Some number of prisoners, possibly zero, realizes that their cells are unlocked and the jailer is incapacitated. They immediately escape.
Given the number of cells, determine how many prisoners escape jail.

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 25710 Accepted: 9607

###### Description

The Joseph’s problem is notoriously known. For those who are not familiar with the original problem: from among n people, numbered 1, 2, . . ., n, standing in circle every mth is going to be executed and only the life of the last remaining person will be saved. Joseph was smart enough to choose the position of the last remaining person, thus saving his life to give us the message about the incident. For example when n = 6 and m = 5 then the people will be executed in the order 5, 4, 6, 2, 3 and 1 will be saved.

Suppose that there are k good guys and k bad guys. In the circle the first k are good guys and the last k bad guys. You have to determine such minimal m that all the bad guys will be executed before the first good guy.

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 17169 Accepted: 8069

###### Description

A color reduction is a mapping from a set of discrete colors to a smaller one. The solution to this problem requires that you perform just such a mapping in a standard twenty-four bit RGB color space. The input consists of a target set of sixteen RGB color values, and a collection of arbitrary RGB colors to be mapped to their closest color in the target set. For our purposes, an RGB color is defined as an ordered triple (R,G,B) where each value of the triple is an integer from 0 to 255. The distance between two colors is defined as the Euclidean distance between two three-dimensional points. That is, given two colors (R1,G1,B1) and (R2,G2,B2), their distance D is given by the equation

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 22619 Accepted: 6949

###### Description

Sally Jones has a dozen Voyageur silver dollars. However, only eleven of the coins are true silver dollars; one coin is counterfeit even though its color and size make it indistinguishable from the real silver dollars. The counterfeit coin has a different weight from the other coins but Sally does not know if it is heavier or lighter than the real coins.
Happily, Sally has a friend who loans her a very accurate balance scale. The friend will permit Sally three weighings to find the counterfeit coin. For instance, if Sally weighs two coins against each other and the scales balance then she knows these two coins are true. Now if Sally weighs
one of the true coins against a third coin and the scales do not balance then Sally knows the third coin is counterfeit and she can tell whether it is light or heavy depending on whether the balance on which it is placed goes up or down, respectively.
By choosing her weighings carefully, Sally is able to ensure that she will find the counterfeit coin with exactly three weighings.

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 13047 Accepted: 5735

###### Description

Standard web browsers contain features to move backward and forward among the pages recently visited. One way to implement these features is to use two stacks to keep track of the pages that can be reached by moving backward and forward. In this problem, you are asked to implement this.
The following commands need to be supported:
BACK: Push the current page on the top of the forward stack. Pop the page from the top of the backward stack, making it the new current page. If the backward stack is empty, the command is ignored.
FORWARD: Push the current page on the top of the backward stack. Pop the page from the top of the forward stack, making it the new current page. If the forward stack is empty, the command is ignored.
VISIT : Push the current page on the top of the backward stack, and make the URL specified the new current page. The forward stack is emptied.
QUIT: Quit the browser.
Assume that the browser initially loads the web page at the URL http://www.acm.org/

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 58419 Accepted: 16950

###### Description

Some people believe that there are three cycles in a person’s life that start the day he or she is born. These three cycles are the physical, emotional, and intellectual cycles, and they have periods of lengths 23, 28, and 33 days, respectively. There is one peak in each period of a cycle. At the peak of a cycle, a person performs at his or her best in the corresponding field (physical, emotional or mental). For example, if it is the mental curve, thought processes will be sharper and concentration will be easier.

Time Limit: 1000MS Memory Limit: 10000K Total Submissions: 33288 Accepted: 10153

###### Description

During his last sabbatical, professor M. A. Ya made a surprising discovery about the old Maya calendar. From an old knotted message, professor discovered that the Maya civilization used a 365 day long year, called Haab, which had 19 months. Each of the first 18 months was 20 days long, and the names of the months were pop, no, zip, zotz, tzec, xul, yoxkin, mol, chen, yax, zac, ceh, mac, kankin, muan, pax, koyab, cumhu. Instead of having names, the days of the months were denoted by numbers starting from 0 to 19. The last month of Haab was called uayet and had 5 days denoted by numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. The Maya believed that this month was unlucky, the court of justice was not in session, the trade stopped, people did not even sweep the floor.